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Snell B-95 is generally significantly more stringant than the other standards. Buy a helmet with a Snell B-95 sticker on it.

This table compares a few common US helmet standards:

                  CPSC      ASTM    Snell    Snell    ANSI 1984 
B-90S B-95 (withdrawn)

Drop height on 2.0 m 2.0 m 2.0 m 2.2 m* 1.0 m
flat anvil 2.0 m

Drop height on 1.2 m 1.2 m 1.3 m 1.5 m* 1.0 m
hemispherical 1.3 m
anvil

Drop height on 1.2 m 1.2 m None 1.5 m* None
curbstone anvil 1.3 m

Headform weight 5 kg 5 kg 5 kg 5 kg 5 kg
for adult tests

Headform weight 5 kg 3.2 or 5 kg 5 kg 5 kg
for child tests 4.0 kg
(pending)

Total energy: 98 J 98 J 98 J 110 J* 49 J
adult test 100 J
medium headform
flat anvil

Failure
threshhold 300 g 300 g 300 g 300 g 300g

Coverage vs. Same Less Same More Same
CPSC 1999

Strap jerk 24 J 24 J 26 J ?? J 20 J
(joules)

Rolloff test Yes In 1998 Yes Yes None
revision



*Snell B-95 uses a more severe impact for initial certification than for follow-up performance testing. Snell considers the B-95 strap jerk test to be roughly equivalent to the B-90 test, although parameters have changed.

Standards in this Comparison

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) American National Standard for Protective Headgear - for Bicyclists ANSI Z90.4-1984. (Abbreviated as "ANSI" below) Included here for information despite administrative withdrawal by ANSI when it passed its 10 year maximum life on December 31, 1994. See note above.

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Specification for Protective Headgear Used in Bicycling, F1447-97a, and F-1446-97, Test Methods for Equipment and Procedures Used in Evaluating the Performance Characteristics of Protective Headgear (the Base Standard). ("ASTM") Official as of 1997, with notes on most but not all of the changes to be published in 1998.

Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand, Australian and New Zealand standard 2063: 1996 - Pedal Cycle Helmets. Also requires AS/NZS 2512.1:1996 "Methods of Testing Protective Helmets: Method 1: Definitions and Headforms" as well as AS/NZS 2512.9:1996 "Methods of Testing Protective Helmets: Method 9: Determination of Load Distribution" There may also be changes in other Methods we do not yet have. ("Aus/NZ")

British Standards Institution (BSI), British Standard Specification for Pedal Cyclists' Helmets BS 6863:1987. ("BSI") (N.B.- Does not reflect changes made by PAS002, which we do not have!)

Canadian Standards Association CAN-CSA-D113.2-M CYCLING HELMETS ("Canada") With 1996 toddler helmet standard changes.

Consumer Product Safety Commission (US) Safety Standard for Bicycle Helmets. Final Rule approved on March 10, 1998 and taking effect as U.S. law on March 10, 1999. ("CPSC")

CEN European Standard Helmets for Pedal Cyclists and for Users of Skateboards and Roller Skates, Draft for formal vote CEN/TC 158/WG 4 N XX (supersedes prEN 1078) April, 1995. Understood to have been adopted unchanged. ("Europe")

CEN European Standard Impact Protection Helmets for Young Children. Draft for formal vote CEN/TC 158/WG 4 N YY (supersedes prEN 1080) April, 1995. Understood to have been adopted unchanged. ("Europe-Child ")

Japanese Industrial Standard, Protective Helmets for Bicycle Users. JIS T 8134-1982. Translation by Japanese Standards Association. ("Japan")

Snell Memorial Foundation 1990 Standard for Protective Headgear for use in Bicycling ("Snell B90") Includes the Supplement adding a rolloff test, and kerbstone anvil impact(B-90S). Does not include 1998 revisions (B-90A).

Snell Memorial Foundation 1995 Standard for Protective Headgear for use with Bicycles ("Snell B95") July 28, 1994, draft slated to come into effect in September, 1995.

Snell Memorial Foundation Standard for Protective Headgear for use in Non-Motorized Sports ("Snell N94")

Swedish Board for Consumer Policies KOVFS 1985:6 ("Sweden") Supplemented by National Testing Institute (Statens Provningsanstalt) SP Report 1989:47 "Method of Testing of Bicycle Helmets" by Kaj-ake Blom.


Index


Anvils

ANSI: Flat and 50 mm radius hemispherical.
ASTM: Flat (flat circle minimum of 125 mm in diameter and at least 24 mm thick, although illustration shows 25 mm minimum), hemispherical with 47 to 49 mm radius (illustration shows 47.5 to 48.5), and curbstone (two faces meeting at an angle of 105 degrees radiused at 14.5 to 15.5 mm, with height not less than 50 mm and length not less than 200 mm). (Curbstone illustration shows tolerance for the 105 degree angle.) All anvils must be steel and solid without internal cavities.
Australia/NZ Flat only.
BSI: Flat and "kerbstone," an anvil with two faces making an angle of 100 to 110 degrees, "each inclined at approximately 47.5 degrees to the vertical and meeting along a striking edge with a radius of not less than 16 mm and not more than 19 mm."
Canada: Flat with minimum diameter of flat surface to be 150 mm, and cylindrical with a radius of 49 to 51 mm and length of 199 to 201 mm.
CPSC: Flat, 47 to 49 mm radius hemispherical and curbstone
Europe: Flat with minimum impact face diameter of 127 to 133 mm. "Kerbstone" with two faces making a 105 degree angle, each inclined at 52.5 degrees to the vertical and meeting along a striking edge with a radius of 14.5 mm to 15.5 mm, and with height at least 50 mm and length at least 125 mm.
Europe-Child:Flat with minimum impact face diameter of 127 to 133 mm. "Kerbstone" with two faces making a 105 degree angle, each inclined at 52.5 degrees to the vertical and meeting along a striking edge with a radius of 14.5 mm to 15.5 mm, and with height at least 50 mm and length at least 125 mm.
Japan: Flat
Snell B90: Flat and 47.5 to 48.5 mm radius hemispherical. Face of flat anvil must be at least 127 mm in diameter. With B-90 Supplementary Standard, added kerbstone with two faces making a 105 degree angle, each inclined at 52.5 degrees to the vertical and meeting along a striking edge with a radius of 14.5 to 15.5 mm, and with height at least 50 mm and length at least 200 mm.
Snell B95: Flat and 47.5 to 48.5 mm radius hemispherical. Face of flat anvil must have surface area equivalent to at least 127 mm diameter. Kerbstone with two faces making a 105 degree angle, each inclined at 52.5 degrees to the vertical and meeting along a striking edge with a radius of 14.5 to 15.5 mm, and with height at least 50 mm and length at least 200 mm.
Snell N94: Same as Snell B95.
Sweden: Flat only. (Second test uses a 25 mm radius cylindrical striker rather than an anvil.)


Buckle and Strap Durability in Use(Not strength test)
ANSI: None.
ASTM: None.
Australia/NZ None.
BSI: Strap test includes test for abrasion which cycles strap 5,000 times through its own fastener under tension, then subjects it to a 1kN tensile strength test. Test for durability of buckle cycles it under load for 2,500 cycles, and if it has metal parts sprays them with sodium chloride solution before subjecting them to a 1kN load.
Canada: Five fastening-unfastening cycles of the fastener after cold conditioning.
CPSC: None
Europe: None.
Europe-Child:None.
Japan: None
Snell B90: None
Snell B95: None
Snell N94: None
Sweden: None (For buckle and strap strength see Retention System)


Certification Process
ANSI: None.
ASTM: Permits "self-certification." Recommends that manufacturer have an independent lab test each model and size at least annually.
Australia/NZ SAA lab testing for certification and ongoing quality control tests of each production batch of helmets before they are shipped to retailers.
BSI: BSI lab testing.
Canada: CSA lab. Inspection of manufacturer's facility to verify existence of calibrated lab equipment as well as quality control and other procedures necessary to ensure compliance with the standard.
CPSC: Manufacturer must issue certificate based on a "reasonable testing program." Can use tests prescribed in the standard or other test procedures assuring compliance. At least one helmet from each production lot must be tested. New lot if change any component. If non-complying helmets found, must ensure that "sufficient actions are taken that it is reasonably likely that no noncomplying helmets remain in the production lot." Identified noncomplying helmets to be destroyed or modified to conform.
Europe: Not known.
Europe-Child:Not known.
Japan: Not known.
Snell B90: For initial certification, Snell lab testing and staff visit to factory. Follow up testing of random samples purchased from consumer outlets.
Snell B95: For initial certification, Snell lab testing and staff visit to factory. Follow up testing of random samples purchased from consumer outlets.
Snell N94: Same as Snell B95.
Sweden: Not known.


Child Helmets
ANSI: None.
ASTM: None. (Revision to be balloted)
Australia/NZ None.
BSI: None.
Canada: Helmets for cyclists or passengers under five years old are tested with A headform weighing 3.1 kg or E headform weighing 4.1 kg. Peak g level cannot exceed 200 g for flat anvil drop from nominal 1.5 m. height (5.7 m/s), nominally 50 J for A size headform and 67 J for E size. For cylindrical anvil peak cannot exceed 150 g for drop of nominal 1 m. (4.2 m/s), nominally 34 J for the A headform and 45 J for the E headform. Label in yellow Pantone 803 required stating "This helmet has been designed for use by cyclists or cycle passengers under the age of five years."
CPSC: Helmets for children 1 to 4 years of age must have additional
coverage.
Europe: Separate optional helmet spec for child helmets with breakaway buckle designed to prevent playground strangulations.
Europe-Child:Separate optional helmet spec for child helmets with breakaway buckle designed to prevent playground strangulations.
Japan: None
Snell B90: None.
Snell B95: None.
Snell N94: None.
Sweden: None.


Conditioning Environments
ANSI: Ambient: Laboratory environment 18 degrees C to 27 degrees C (F 64 degrees to 81 degrees), Relative humidity 20 to 80 per cent . Cold: -8 to -12 degrees C (F 14 degrees). Hot: 48 to 52 degrees C (F 122 degrees) in circulating air oven. Wet: Immersed in water at 18 to 27 degrees C (F 64 to 81 degrees). All conditioning for at least four hours. Testing to begin "immediately" upon removal of helmet from conditioning environment, and helmet to be returned to the conditioning environment after 5 minutes for at least 15 minutes.
ASTM: Ambient: 17 to 23 degrees C (F 63 to 73 degrees) with a relative humidity of 25 to 75 per cent . Cold: -13 degrees to -17 degrees C (F 8 to -1 degree). Hot: 47 degrees to 53 degrees C (F 117 to 127 degrees) with relative humidity no higher than 25 per cent . Wet: Immersed in potable water at 15 degrees to 23 degrees C (F 63 to 73 degrees). Barometric pressure in all environments must be 75 to 110 kPa. Helmet is stabilized in ambient conditions for 24 hours before any further conditioning or testing. Conditioning times 4 to 24 hours for cold, hot and wet. Sample must be tested within 1 minute after removal from conditioning environment and returned within 3 minutes or if kept out longer must be reconditioned for 5 minutes for each minute over 3.
Australia/NZ Ambient: 18 degrees to 25 degrees C (F 64 to 77 degrees). Cold: -3 to -7 degrees C (F 41 degrees). Hot: 48 to 52 degrees C (F 122 degrees) in circulating hot air oven. Wet: Immersed in water at 18 to 25 degrees (F 64 to 77 degrees). All conditioning for 16 to 30 hours. If during testing the time out of the conditioning environment exceeds 5 minutes, the helmet is returned to the conditioning environment for a minimum of 3 times as many minutes as it was out of the environment, or 16 hours, whichever is the lesser, before testing is resumed. (Not yet updated for 1996 version.)
BSI: Ambient: Not specified. Cold: -8 to -12 degrees C (F 14 degrees). Hot: 48 to 52 degrees C (F 122 degrees). Wet: Immersion inverted in water 10 to 20 degrees C (F 50 to 68 degrees) All conditioning for between 4 and 24 hours. Wet to be drained for 15 to 45 minutes in upright position before testing within 20 minutes of conclusion of draining. Others to be tested within 35 to 45 seconds of removal from conditioning environment.
Canada: Ambient: 15 to 25 degrees C (F 59 to 77 degrees), relative humidity 55 to 65 per cent. Hot: 48 to 52 degrees C (F 122 degrees). Cold: -8 to -12 degrees C (F 14 degrees). Wet: Immersed in water at 18 to 27 degrees C (F 64 to 81 degrees). All conditioning for at least four hours. First impact between 30 and 90 seconds after removal from conditioning environment, then helmet returned "immediately" to conditioning environment for at least 15 minutes before another test is conducted.
CPSC: Ambient: 17 to 23 degrees C (F 63 to 73 degrees) with a relative humidity of 20 to 80 per cent. Cold: -13 to -17 degrees C (F 8 to -1 degrees). Hot: 47 to 53 degrees C (F 117 to 127 degrees). Wet: Immersed in water at 15 to 23 degrees C (F 63 to 73 degrees). Barometric pressure in all environments must be 75 to 110 kPa. Helmet is stabilized in ambient conditions for 24 hours before any further conditioning or testing. Conditioning times 4 to 24 hours for cold, hot and wet. Sample must be tested within 2 minutes after removal from conditioning environment and returned within 3 minutes or if kept out longer must be reconditioned for 5 minutes for each minute over 3, not to exceed 4 hours.
Europe: Ambient: Not specified. Cold: -18 to -22 degrees C (F -4 degrees) for four to six hours. Hot: 48 to 52 degrees C (F 122 degrees) for four to six hours. Aging: under UV light-Wet Exposed for 48 hours to a 125 watt xenon-filled quartz lamp at 250 mm followed by spraying for four to six hours with 1 l. of water per minute at ambient temp (not specified). No specification for time out of conditioning before first impact. Second impact on each sample except UV-wet sample is specified with "no reconditioning," which may address question of maximum time out of conditioning environment.
Europe-Child:Ambient: Not specified. Cold: -18 to -22 degrees C (F -4 degrees) for four to six hours. Hot: 48 to 52 degrees C (F 122 degrees) for four to six hours. Aging: under UV light-Wet Exposed for 48 hours to a 125 watt xenon-filled quartz lamp at 250 mm followed by spraying for four to six hours with 1 l. of water per minute at ambient temp (not specified). No specification for time out of conditioning before first impact. Second impact on each sample except UV-wet sample is specified with "no reconditioning," which may address question of maximum time out of conditioning environment.
Japan: Ambient: not specified. Hot: 48 to 52 degrees C. Cold: -8 to -12 degrees C. Wet: Immersion in water at 20 to 30 degrees C. Conditioning for four hours. If time out of conditioning environment exceeds 5 minutes the helmet is reconditioned 3 minutes for every one minute over the 5 minute mark.
Snell B90: Ambient: Not specified. Cold: -18 to -22 degrees C for 4 to 24 hours. Hot: 48 to 52 degrees C for 4 to 24 hours. Wet: Continuously sprayed or immersed in water at a temperature of 20 to 30 degrees C. for 4 to 24 hours. Testing to begin within 2 minutes of removal from conditioning environment.
Snell B95: Ambient: Not specified. Cold: -18 to -22 degrees C for 4 to 24 hours. Hot: 48 to 52 degrees C for 4 to 24 hours. Wet: continuously sprayed on external surface with water at a temperature of 20 to 30 degrees C for 4 to 24 hours, and not to be immersed. Testing to begin within 2 minutes of removal from conditioning environment. Samples returned to conditioning environment between tests.
Snell N94: Same as Snell B95.
Sweden: Ambient: Not specified. Cold: -18 to -22 degrees C (minus 4 degrees F). "Aged" Stored at 68 to 72 degrees C (158 degrees F) for 7 days, returned to ambient, then subjected to UV from a 125 W quartz lamp at a distance of 25 cm for 48 hours, returned to ambient, then tested.


Conspicuity
ANSI: None.
ASTM: None.
Australia/NZ No helmet color specified, but recommends that helmets be white or in colors within the yellow or orange spectrum.
BSI: None.
Canada: None.
CPSC: None.
Europe: None.
Europe-Child:None.
Japan: Shell shall be "bright and vivid." White, cream, yellow, light green, etc. are preferable. If color is not visible at night the helmet's conspicuity shall be enhanced with reflective tape or the like.
Snell B90: Outside may include brightly colored decals.
Snell B95: Introduction mentions helmet may be brightly colored or have reflective surfaces safety features not directly addressed in the standard but meriting the consideration of wearers and manufacturers.
Snell N94: Same as Snell B95.
Sweden: None


Construction
ANSI: "To absorb impact energy and to provide a retention system." No projections greater than 5 mm. Rivet heads radiused and not more than 2 mm above shell. Rigid internal projections must be covered with padding.
ASTM: "To reduce the acceleration of the wearer's head and to remain on the wearer's head during an impact." Any internal rigid projections that could contact the wearer's head during impact must be "protected by some means of cushioning or force spreading." Helmets must pass all tests with and without included attachments. Recognizes the desirability of lightweight construction and ventilation but is a performance standard not intended to restrict design. Defines projection as any internal or external part of a helmet that extends beyond the faired surface and is likely to cause injury.
Australia/NZ Shall consist of a means of absorbing impact energy and a retention system. All components permanently attached to one another, not including the fitting foam, which is removed for testing. No internal projections likely to cause injury in an accident. Any external projections from shell must not protrude more than 5 mm, irregularities smoothly faired. Chin straps must pass under jaw and must be at least 12 mm wide if they contact the wearer's throat under the chin. Adjustment required "to produce tension on straps between all fixing points" when fastened. Visors and other attachments included in testing, but visors removed for helmet stability test.
BSI: No chin guard or chin cup permitted, no sharp edges on inside, inside projections covered with protective padding, normally has shell not necessarily of hard material (shell either contains or provides means of absorbing impact energy) and retention system. May have vent holes. All parts of retention system must be fastened permanently to system or helmet. Chin strap must be between 15 mm and 26 mm wide and be adjustable without any rigid part of buckle contacting jaw of standard headform. If shell is thermoplastic, "any irregularity in the internal or external surface should blend into the surrounding surface in a curve, the radius of which is not less than half the thickness of the shall at that point.
Canada: Defines helmet as "the outer shell, the inner fitting (e.g., sizing foam), shock absorption system (i.e., helmet liner), and the retention system. Note a helmet need not contain all of these elements." Below helmet reference plane (27.5 mm above basic plane for medium size headform), outer surface of the shell to be smoothly faired. No rigid protrusions on inner surface of liner, minimum width of strap 12 mm, visors removable and not part of standard.
CPSC: "To reduce the acceleration of the wearer's head and to remain on the wearer's head during an impact." Optional devices must be unlikely to cause injury. Detachable components must not make helmet unsafe if detached and helmet can still be worn. If any part detaches during testing it must not present a laceration or puncture hazard or reduce coverage of the head. External projections greater than 7 mm must break away, and all others must be smoothly faired to offer "no significant frictional resistance to tangential impact forces." No projections inside greater than 2 mm.
Europe: Normally has means of absorbing impact energy and means of retaining helmet on head in a crash. Has good durability to withstand normal handling, designed so parts do not injure user in normal use. Should have low weight, be ventilating, be easy to put on and take off, be useable with eyeglasses, not significantly interfere with user's ability to hear traffic noise. Strap must be at least 15 mm wide and may have comfort fitting but no chin cup. Buckle must be adjustable to maintain tension in the strap and not sit on jaw bone. Buckle cannot be green, and ideally the opening mechanism should be red or orange.
Europe-Child:Normally has means of absorbing impact energy and means of retaining helmet on head in a crash. Has good durability to withstand normal handling, designed so parts do not injure user in normal use. Should have low weight, be ventilating, be easy to put on and take off, be useable with eyeglasses, not significantly interfere with user's ability to hear traffic noise. Strap must be at least 15 mm wide and may have comfort fitting but no chin cup. Buckle must be adjustable to maintain tension in the strap and not sit on jaw bone. Buckle cannot be green, and ideally the opening mechanism should be red or orange.
Japan: Rigid smooth shell with rounded rim. If there is an integrated visor it shall not interfere with vision. Rivet heads must not protrude over 2.0 mm (inside helmet?) and external snaps and such shall not protrude over 5 mm., excluding easily detachable protrusions. Shock absorbing line fitted well to the shell. May have vents. Chinstrap to be firmly attached. Earflaps if provided shall not detach during riding.
Snell B90: Requires smooth external and internal surfaces. External projections greater than 7 mm must break away, and all others must be smoothly faired to offer "no significant frictional resistance to tangential impact forces." No "metallic parts or other rigid projections on the inside of the helmet that might injure the wearer's head in the event of impact." No feature on the inner surface projecting more than 2 mm. All edges to be smoothly rounded, vent holes permitted. No component whose absence compromises either impact or retention performance can be detachable unless its detachment prevents the helmet from being worn. If any component detaches during testing it "must offer no laceration or puncture hazard nor reduce the coverage of the head." Retention system "shall be designed so as to discourage 'non-essential' features which, if misused, can degrade the performance." Any quick release buckle shall not release "inadvertently. "Introduction says no specific construction or materials required, and intent is to leave room for new helmet technology.
Snell B95: Requires smooth external and internal surfaces. External projections greater than 5 mm must readily break away, and all others must be smoothly faired to offer "minimal frictional resistance to tangential impact forces." No "metallic parts or other rigid projections on the inside of the shell that might injure the wearer's head in the event of impact." No fixture on the inner surface can project more than 2 mm. No interior metallic parts or other rigid projections that might injure the wearer's head. All edges to be smoothly rounded, vent holes permitted. No component whose absence compromises either impact or retention performance can be detachable unless its detachment prevents the helmet from being worn. If any component detaches during testing it "must offer no laceration or puncture hazard nor reduce the area of coverage of the head." Retention system "shall be designed so as to discourage 'non-essential' features which, if misused, can degrade the performance." Any quick release buckle shall not release "inadvertently. "Introduction says no specific construction or materials required, and intent is to leave room for new helmet technology. Upon inspection of the helmet, "any feature found to reduce the protective capacity of the headgear, whether explicitly mentioned in this Standard or not, will be a cause for rejection."
Snell N94: Same as Snell B95.
Sweden: Encircle users head, have good durability and withstand normal handling, withstand temperatures between -30 degrees C and 70 degrees C (F -22 to 158 degrees) "without impairment of its protective properties on return to normal conditions," retain protective qualities under "normally occurring climatic conditions," be shaped to stay on head in accident, not have any parts injuring user in normal use or impact, be easy to put on and take off, be usable with spectacles. Test samples for impact tests shall be largest size.


Coverage
(Dimensions usually vary with head size. These comparisons are for size medium, ISO J headform. "Basic plane" (Frankfort Horizontal Plane) is a horizontal plane through the upper edges of the skull's ear opening and the lower edge of the eye socket. It is marked on ISO headforms.)
ANSI: Entire area above the Test Line must meet impact attenuation standard. Test Line defined for medium size headform as starting in front at a distance of 85 mm above the basic plane, stepping down to 60 mm and then to 35 mm behind the center of gravity and around the back.
ASTM: Entire area above the test line must meet impact attenuation standard, but center of impact of the test apparatus must be at least 25 mm above the line. Resultant test line is parallel to the basic plane and begins in front 85 mm above the basic plane, stepping down to 60 mm at a point two thirds back. Does not vary with head size. (Elimination of 25 mm offset and variability with head size has been approved but not yet published.)
Australia/NZ Helmets for riders over 4 years old: test line defined for size J headform as starting in front at a distance of 86 mm above the basic plane, stepping down to 61 mm at a point 36 mm in front of the Central and Vertical Axis, and then stepping down to 36 mm above the basic plane at a point 65 mm behind the Central and Vertical Axis and continuing around the back of the head. Helmets for riders four years old and younger: test line on the AA headform begins in back of head at 8 mm above basic plane. At a point 36 mm behind the Central and Vertical Axis it begins rising and at 30 mm behind the axis it reaches 31 mm above the basic plane. At 28 mm in front of the axis it begins to rise again and at 34 mm in front of the axis it reaches 54 mm above the basic plane. It then angles downward toward the front at a 15 degree angle, with the final dimension above the basic plane not called out, but appearing in the drawing to be about 42 mm above the basic plane.
BSI: No dimension charts in standard for test line. Probably found in BS6489, where headform is detailed. Appears similar to Snell, with single plane rather than ANSI steps.
Canada: Test line on J headform begins at front 85.5 mm above basic plane, dropping at about one-third of the way back to 60.5 mm, then at two-thirds to 33.5 mm.
CPSC: Entire area above the test line must meet impact standard, with impact sites centered on or above the test line. For helmets for riders aged 5 and over, the test line for J size headform starts in front at a distance of 68.5 mm above the basic plane, stepping down at a point 54 mm behind the cg to 54.5 mm above the basic plane. For helmets for riders under 5 years of age, line begins on the ISO E size headform in front at a point 57.5 mm above the basic plane, dropping at a point 27 mm in front of the cg to 40.2 mm above the basic plane and dropping again at a point 32 mm behind the cg to a point 11.5 mm above the basic plane.
Europe: Uniquely shaped test area begins in back at reference plane, then angles slightly upward toward the front for a short but unspecified distance to a point where it moves upward 20 mm, continuing to angle upward slightly to a point in front of the ear where it angles more sharply upward, then drops 20 mm and continues to angle upward at 60 degrees to the vertical plane to the final point on the front of the helmet. Reference plane is 27.5 mm above basic plane and 102.5 mm below top of headform, apparently requiring a helmet dimension of 130 mm from basic plane to top. Dimensions in tables and description do not appear to match drawing, and we could not locate some points from information given. Probably will be clarified in later drafts. Forward explains that 20 mm upward jumps on side were an "interim measure" required because current helmets had difficulty meeting impact requirements in that area.
Europe-Child:Uniquely shaped test area begins in back at reference plane, then angles slightly upward toward the front for a short but unspecified distance to a point where it moves upward 20 mm, continuing to angle upward slightly to a point in front of the ear where it angles more sharply upward, then drops 20 mm and continues to angle upward at 60 degrees to the vertical plane to the final point on the front of the helmet. Reference plane is 27.5 mm above basic plane and 102.5 mm below top of headform, apparently requiring a helmet dimension of 130 mm from basic plane to top. Dimensions in tables and description do not appear to match drawing, and we could not locate some points from information given. Probably will be clarified in later drafts. Forward explains that 20 mm upward jumps on side were an "interim measure" required because current helmets had difficulty meeting impact requirements in that area.
Japan: Test line is located 90.3 mm above the basic plane for the adult headform and 89.9 mm above the basic plane for the child headform.
Snell B90: Using DOT C size headform, at least entire area above reference plane, a line which on the medium sized headform falls 60 mm above and parallel to the basic plane. Basic plane same as ANSI. Test Line is 15 mm above reference plane, resulting in impact centers no lower than 75 mm above the basic plane both front and rear.
Snell B95: On J headform, extent of protection line begins at 53 mm in front, stepping down at about the one third mark to 33 mm and continuing around the rear. Less coverage is permitted at the centerline on the sides or the centerline in the rear. Test line on or above which impact may be centered is 15 mm higher, beginning at 68 mm above basic plane in front and stepping down to 48 mm.
Snell N94: Differs from Snell B95. Extent of protection line begins at front 53 mm above basic plane, stepping down at the one third mark to 33 mm and at the two thirds mark to 13 mm to continue around the back of the helmet. Less coverage is permitted at the steps on the sides. Test line on or above which impact may be centered is 15 mm higher, beginning at 68 mm above the basic plane in front, stepping down to 48 mm and then to 28 mm. If required, portions of the helmet may be cut away during testing if they interfere with positioning on the test equipment.
Sweden: Encircle the user's forehead, back of the head, temples and crown of the head. Test impact to lie "within the protective--encircling--area of the helmet." No definition of basic plane in our copy.


Drop Apparatus
ANSI: Calls out a Snell-style twin wire drop rig. Weight of support assembly cannot exceed 25 per cent of total combined weight of support assembly and headform. Center of gravity of headform and support assembly must lie within a vertical cone of 10 degrees from point of impact. Sensitive axis of accelerometer to lie within 5 degrees of vertical. Anvil mount must be a solid mass of at least 135 kg.
ASTM: Guided free fall using wire, monorail or other drop rig (example illustration shows twin-wire and monorail rigs) onto a steel anvil fixed on a rigid base. Drop assembly exclusive of helmet must weigh 4.9 to 5.1 kg. Drop assembly minus weight of headform, ball clamp, ball clamp bolts and accelerometer cannot exceed 1.1 kg. Uniaxial accelerometer capable of measuring 1,000 g's with sensitive axis aligned within 5 degrees of vertical. CG of headform must be at center of mounting ball. CG of combined headform and supporting assembly must meet F.M.V.S.S. #218 (rev. 4-6- 88) S slash.1.8 with any type of guide system.
Australia/NZ Twin-wire drop rig. Weight of support arm cannot exceed 20 per cent of mass of drop assembly, which is limited to 3.5, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 kg for the four headform sizes ABCD. Center of mass of assembly within 10 degree vertical cone from point of impact. Sensitive axis of accelerometer within 5 degrees of vertical. Mass of anvil mount at least 130 kg. (Not yet updated for 1996 version.)
BSI: Twin wire drop rig. Weight of support arm cannot exceed 20 per cent of mass of drop assembly, which without helmet is 5.0 to 5.2 kg. Center of gravity of headform and support assembly must lie within a vertical cone of 10 degrees from point of impact. Sensitive axis of accelerometer must lie within 5 degrees of vertical. Base has minimum mass of 500 kg topped by steel plate at least 25 mm thick.
Canada: Twin wire drop rig, same weight restrictions as Snell standard below. Wires to be under at least 850 N tension. "Any similar free fall drop system would be considered a suitable drop-assembly apparatus."
CPSC: Guided free fall using twin wire or monorail test rig onto a steel anvil fixed on a rigid base. Base must have mass at least 135 kg, with steel plate on top at least 25 mm thick. Drop assembly (headform plus support assembly without helmet) must weigh 5 kg +/- 0.1 kg. (11 lb.). Uniaxial accelerometer capable of measuring 1,000 g with sensitive axis aligned within 5 degrees of vertical. CG of headform must be at center of mounting ball and within 10 degree vertical cone from point of impact. CG of drop assembly (headform plus support assembly) must meet FMVSS 218 S7.1.8 and lie in rectangular area 28 mm by 12.8 mm. Center of anvil must be fixed in alignment with center vertical axis of the accelerometer.
Europe: Such that in guided free fall the headform attains at least 95 per cent of theoretical velocity, that it does not affect the measurement of acceleration at the cg of the headform, and that headform can be adjusted to permit any point within the protective zone to be aligned with the vertical at the center of the anvil. Base must be "monolithic," made of steel, concrete or a combination of the two, and have mass of at least 500 kg. Drawing shows a 60 Shore rubber slab below base, but written specs do not include it. No part can have a resonant frequency "liable to affect the measurements." Requires tri-axial accelerometer weighing no more than 50 grams and able to withstand 2000 g. Drawing shows a triple wire guidance system with headform cradled on a triangular dolly with a hole in the center which would drop away below anvil upon impact.
Japan: Twin wire drop rig is illustrated. Supporting arm to be 800 grams or less. CG of headform must lie within inverted cone of 10 degrees centered on impact site.
Snell B90: No drop rig design specified. Helmet and headform to drop in guided free fall. Weight of support assembly cannot exceed 25 per cent of total combined weight of support assembly and headform. Center of gravity of headform and support assembly must lie within 10 mm horizontally of the design center of gravity of the test headform. Sensitive axis of accelerometer to lie within 5 degrees of vertical. Mass of headform not to exceed 6.5 kg including support arm but excluding helmet. Anvil mount must be a solid mass of at least 135 kg.
Snell B95: Free fall guided by two or more wires, or one or more rails, onto a steel anvil fixed on a rigid base. Base must have mass at least 135 kg, with steel plate on top at least 12 mm thick and a surface area of at least .1 sq. m. Drop assembly exclusive of helmet must weigh between 5 kg and 6.5 kg. Support assembly weight shall not exceed 25 per cent of the combined weights of headform, ball arm, collar and accelerometer. Drop trajectory must be a straight line within 3 degrees of vertical. Line parallel to drop trajectory must pass within 5 mm of the center of the test anvil, within 10 mm of the center of gravity of the headform support assembly, and within 5 mm of the sensitive element of the accelerometer. Requires uniaxial accelerometer capable of measuring 1,000 g with sensitive axis aligned within 5 degrees of vertical..
Snell N94: Same as Snell B95.
Sweden: Specified in SP-MET 19852. Includes a drop test and striker impacting test with helmet mounted on an 80 mm ball and impacted by a 5 kg cylinder with 25 mm radius striking surface dropped .60 meter (30 Nm energy level).


Hair Oil Test
ANSI: None.
ASTM: None.
Australia/NZ None.
BSI: None.
Canada: None.
CPSC: None.
Europe: None.
Europe-Child:None.
Japan: After 24 hours of conditioning in ambient temperature, apply white vaseline specified in Japanese pharmacopoeia on the surface of the liner and retention system. Examine for brittleness, swelling, softening and other damage by visual and tactile examination.
Snell B90: None.
Snell B95: None.
Snell N94: None.
Sweden: None.


Headforms
ANSI: ISO-DIS 6220-1983. Five sizes (A,E,J, M and O) specified. Must be made of low-resonant-frequency material exhibiting no resonant frequencies below 3000 hz. Mass of each headform must be 5 kg 0.05 kg together with supporting assembly. Must include surface markings for basic, coronal, midsagittal and reference planes.
ASTM: ISO-DIS 6220-1983 above reference plane. Below reference plane the profile is to be defined by an Appendix. Five sizes (A, E, J, M and O) specified, to be of magnesium K1A material. Helmets fitting two headform sizes are tested on both unless manufacturer also makes a smaller model fitting the smaller headform. The helmet fits two headforms if it is not physically difficult to mount on the larger headform and partially compresses the fitting foam on the smaller headform.
Australia/NZ AS 2512.1 Permits headforms of "hardwood, metal or other suitable material."
BSI: BS 6489. Has eight "series."
Canada: ISO-DIS Standard 6220-1983.
CPSC: ISO-DIS 6220-1983. Five sizes (A,E,J M and O) specified. Must be made of K-1A magnesium alloy. Mass of each headform together with supporting assembly must weigh 5 kg. regardless of size.
Europe: Calls out headforms conforming to EN 960, Headforms for Testing Protective Helmets. There are five headforms (A, E, J, M and O) in the body of the standard and three more (C, G and K) in a table defining the test area which has 8 sizes. Size O is very large, for helmets with inside circumferences of 620 mm. Must be made of metal and have "a low resonance frequency but not below 3000 Hz." Headform mass varies with size, ranging from 3.1 to 6.1 kg. Must have housing for triaxial accelerometer "near its centre of gravity." Chin area shape is specified in headform dimensions.
Europe-Child:Calls out headforms conforming to EN 960, Headforms for Testing Protective Helmets. There are five headforms (A, E, J, M and O) in the body of the standard and three more (C, G and K) in a table defining the test area which has 8 sizes. Size O is very large, for helmets with inside circumferences of 620 mm. Must be made of metal and have "a low resonance frequency but not below 3000 Hz." Headform mass varies with size, ranging from 3.1 to 6.1 kg. Must have housing for triaxial accelerometer "near its centre of gravity." Chin area shape is specified in headform dimensions.\
Japan: Calls out unique headforms, one for adults and one for child helmets, made of low-reverberating magnesium alloy. In addition there is a penetration test headform with an electrically conductive surface.
Snell B90: Small, medium and large headforms of magnesium alloy or similar, conforming to the sizes of the DOT FMVSS 218 small, medium and large headforms. Reference headform for determining test line is "derived from" the same DOT headform.
Snell B95: ISO-DIS 6220-1983. Four sizes (A,E,J, and M) specified. Must be made of a rigid, low-resonance material such as magnesium alloy.
Snell N94: Same as Snell B95.
Sweden: Wooden. Specified either in SP-MET 19852 or as SIS 882431. For striker test, headform is a half-sphere with 80 mm radius, equipped "so that within a circular region with the area 1 cm on the top of this half-sphere one can measure and record vertical forces up to 40,000 N and frequencies up to 1,000 Hz."


Hearing
ANSI: Not mentioned.
ASTM: Not mentioned.
Australia/NZ Not mentioned.
BSI: When mounted on BS 6489 headform no part of helmet can intrude into a cylindrical space of diameter 65 mm simulating ear position. (Note: In practice BHSI understands that no British manufacturer was able to meet this requirement and BSI issued waivers for this provision.)
Canada: Not mentioned.
CPSC: Not mentioned.
Europe: Should not significantly interfere with the ability of the user to hear traffic noises.
Europe-Child:Should not significantly interfere with the ability of the user to hear traffic noises.
Japan: Not mentioned.
Snell B90: Not mentioned.
Snell B95: Not mentioned.
Snell N94: Not mentioned.
Sweden: Not mentioned.


Impact Energy Management
ANSI: Peak acceleration not to exceed 300 g with drop of at least 1 meter achieving impact velocity of 4.57 m per s plus 0 to -5 per cent on either flat or hemispherical anvil.
ASTM: Not to exceed 300 g. "Theoretical" drop heights of 2.0 meters (impact velocity 6.2 meters per second) for flat anvil; 1.2 meters (impact velocity of 4.8 meters per second) for hemispherical and curbstone anvils. Velocity measured in last 40 mm of free-fall must be within 3 per cent of specification.
Australia/NZ Not to exceed 300 g, or 200 g for 3.0 ms, or 150 g for 6.0 ms. Drop heights of 1.45 to 1.80 m on flat anvil. None of the protective components can become detached during impact test. Helmet must not lose any pieces representing more than 10 per cent of its mass during testing. Has separate point loading test described under Point Loading.
BSI: Not to exceed 300 g with drop of at least one meter achieving impact velocity of 4.57 to 4.72 m per s on either flat or kerbstone anvil.
Canada: Flat anvil drop: Helmets for those over 5 in drop of 55 J not to exceed 200 g peak and 80 J not to exceed 250 g. For those under 5, A size headform in 50 J drop not to exceed 200 g peak, E size in 67 J drop not to exceed 250 g. Cylindrical anvil drop: helmets for those over 5 in drop of 55 J not to exceed 250 g peak. For those under 5, in 34 J drop (A size headform) or 45 J (E size headform) peak not to exceed 150 g. If Gadd Severity Index exceeds 1500 on any drop "it is recommended that additional testing be undertaken as detailed in this standard."
CPSC: Not to exceed 300 g, On flat anvil, impact velocity of 6.2 m/s +/- 3 per cent typically requiring drop height of 2.0 m plus any height adjustment for friction losses. On hemispherical and curbstone anvils impact velocity of 4.8 m/s +/- 3 per cent typically requiring drop height of 1.2 m plus friction adjustment. Velocity measured in last 40 mm of free-fall.
Europe: No impact of the 20 required in the test series can exceed 250 g peak in 1.5 meter drop on flat or kerbstone anvil.
Europe-Child:No impact of the 20 required in the test series can exceed 250 g peak in 1.5 meter drop on flat or kerbstone anvil.
Japan: Not to exceed 400 g or 150g for more than 4 ms in flat anvil drops from 1.6 m (adult helmets) or 1.4 m (child helmets).
Snell B90: For four impacts, the peak acceleration for each of the four impacts must not exceed 300 g, with drop energy of 100 J (2.0 plus meter height) on flat anvil and 65 J (1.3 plus meters) on hemispherical anvil (heights calculated for 5 kg headform). If any part detaches during testing "it must offer no laceration or puncture hazard nor reduce the coverage of the head."
Snell B95: For four impacts, the peak acceleration for each of the four impacts must not exceed 300 g, with drop energy of 110 J (2.2 plus meter height) for certification testing and 100 J (2 plus meter height) for follow-up testing on flat anvil and 72 J for certification testing and 65 J (1.3 plus meters) on hemispherical or kerbstone anvils (heights calculated for 5 kg headform). If any part detaches during testing "it must offer no laceration or puncture hazard nor reduce the coverage of the head."
Snell N94: For four "conditioning impacts" in the rear third of the helmet of 40 J (.8 meter drop height) and four test impacts, the peak acceleration for each impact must not exceed 300 g, with drop energy of 100 J (2 plus meter height) on flat anvil and 65 J (1.3 plus meters) on hemispherical anvil (heights calculated for 5 kg headform). Conditioning impacts may be up to 42 J, and test impacts may be up to 103 J. If any part detaches during testing "it must offer no laceration or puncture hazard nor reduce the coverage of the head."
Sweden: Acceleration not to exceed 250 g (2,500 meters per second) with drop of 1.5 meters onto flat anvil. Joules not known, but probably specified in SP-MET 1985 2. Has a second test for point loading described under Point Loading below.


Impact Sites
ANSI: Single impacts on 4 sites. Unintentionally gives impression that helmet should be impacted on each site on the flat, then the hemispherical, anvil. Later states that impacts should be equally divided between the flat and hemispherical anvils. If there are mechanical fasteners in the test area at least one is to be impacted. At least one impact 12 mm above the test line at the front, rear or side of the helmet.
ASTM: Four single impacts centered at least 25 mm (arc width) above any point on the test line and at least one fifth of the maximum circumference of the helmet from any prior impact center. Flat and hemispherical anvils to be used on each set of helmets, but curbstone anvil used only once on a fifth ambient sample. (Clarification of this and removal of 25 mm offset have been approved but not yet published.) Impact testing after retention system tests.
Australia/NZ Four single impacts anywhere above test line, separated by not less than one-fifth of the circumference of the helmet measured at "the nominal AA' line," shown as 12.7 mm above the Reference Plane.
BSI: Single impacts on at least two sites, alternating between flat and kerbstone anvils.
Canada: Single impacts on four sites per helmet. Test line traced by placing helmet on a reference headform, applying 11.25 lb (50 N) weight and seating helmet according to its "helmet positioning index." (see
Positioning on the headform below.) Helmet is marked at reference line on headform. Impacts can be anywhere above test line, separated by at least 25 per cent of maximum circumference of the helmet. Front, rear and one side must be impacted, final site at discretion of testing facility. If there are mechanical fasteners in the test area at least one is to be impacted at least once. Two impacts required at 5.7 m/s on flat anvil and one at 4.7 m/s on cylindrical anvil.
CPSC: Impacts centered anywhere on or above the test line, with sites selected for most severe test in attempt to fail the helmet. Two sets of four samples required for each size and model offered. First set of ambient, hot. cold and wet samples each impacted at sites separated by 120 mm (measured on surface of helmet) two times with flat anvil and two times with hemispherical anvil. Second set of ambient, hot, cold and wet samples impacted once each on curbstone anvil.
Europe: Two impacts on each of ten samples according to a test schedule which specifies the anvil and conditioning to be used. Retenetion system tests are done after impact tests.
Europe-Child:Two impacts on each of ten samples according to a test schedule which specifies the anvil and conditioning to be used. Retention system tests are done after impact tests.
Japan: Not specified.
Snell B90: Single impacts on 4 sites 15 mm or higher above the reference plane. Plane marked by placing helmet on DOT FMVSS 218 headform, applying 50 N (11.25 lb.) weight and marking helmet from reference line on headform. Impacts to be against flat and hemispherical anvils in random order. Vents and rivets are included as valid test sites. "The helmet shall provide as nearly uniform impact protection over the entire protected area as is possible using normal manufacturing techniques."
Snell B95: Four test impacts 120 mm apart on any spot above the test line, using any combination of flat, hemispherical or kerbstone anvil, and including rivets, vents or other helmet features. Impacts orchestrated by the tester to investigate potential weaknesses and explore each likely failure mode.
Snell N94: Has sites for conditioning impacts at lower velocity and full test impacts at higher velocities. All impacts are to be on or above the test line. All conditioning impact sites to be on the rear third of the helmet. Conditioning impact sites may overlap, but test impacts must be separated by at least 120 mm. After four conditioning impacts the sample is subjected to no more than four test impacts. Rivets, vents and other helmet features within the defined test region are valid test sites. Test impact sites may overlay conditioning impact sites as long as the test impacts themselves are at least 120 mm apart. Anvils may be flat, hemispherical, edge or kerbstone.
Sweden: Three different sites on flat anvil, three with striker. Possible weak points and special accident conditions to be taken into account (presumably by rigorous testing of weaknesses, but not clear). Alternate spec says four sites, with one each impact on front, back, side and top. No testing within 20 mm of edge of shell.


Instructions for Use and Care
ANSI: Bicycle use only, good fit necessary, fasten straps, crash damage, solvents warning.
ASTM: Not for motor vehicle use label (now eliminated by not yet published), fitting and positioning instructions including graphics, substances which can damage, recommended cleaning agents or procedures, return to manufacturer for inspection or destroy after impact, impact damage may not be visible, no helmet can protect against all impacts warning, proper fitting and retention system attachment required for maximum protection.
Australia/NZ Warning about possible impacts, must buckle strap, fit, how to adjust, correct adjustment as a paired circle/circle-slash mark graphic at least 25 mm high, no attachments except manufacturer's, crash damage, solvents, helmet has limited life span. Other info on stickers inside listed below under Labels.
BSI: Bicycle use only, clean with soft cloth and tap water only, crash damage, solvents warning, good fit necessary, check for wear, keep from heat and sunlight, replacement after crashing, squashing, scratching, or using for a few years. Replace if no longer fits. If need advice, ask local dealer or write to manufacturer or importer. Must have BSI WARNING in big print "do not paint or apply solvents, glues or sticky labels."
Canada: Bicycle use only, good fit necessary, fasten straps, crash damage, no paint or decals unless approved by manufacturer, approved cleaning agents, if visor included must state visor is not CSA certified, label or tag giving instructions on how to fit helmet properly. Must specify whether for riders and passengers under age 5 or over. Text must be in English and French.
CPSC: Not for motor vehicle use, fit and fasten, replace after impact, damaging substances. Fit instructions to accompany.
Europe: Adjust to fit level on head, discard after violent impact, dangerous to modify or remove original components, should not adapt to mount attachments unless recommended by manufacturer..
Europe-Child:Adjust to fit level on head, discard after violent impact, dangerous to modify or remove original components, should not adapt to mount attachments unless recommended by manufacturer..
Japan: Handling instructions, fasten chinstrap, replace if damaged, damaging substances.
Snell B90: Bicycle use only, good fit necessary, fasten straps, crash damage, solvents and adhesives. Label required warning of "factors degrading helmet materials and the signs of such degradation."
Snell B95: Manufacturer must provide "suitable guidance" on adjustment and fit to obtain positional stability. Bicycle use only, no helmet can protect against all impacts warning, good fit necessary, fasten straps, damage after crash may not be visible, return to manufacturer for inspection or destroy after an impact, substances which can damage, substances which can be used for cleaning or painting, Snell Foundation serialized label.
Snell N94: Must have guidance on adjustment and fit to obtain positional stability. Non-motorized use only, no helmet can protect against all impacts, good fit necessary, fasten straps, damage after crash may not be visible, return to manufacturer for inspection or destroy after an impact, substances which can damage, substances which can be used for cleaning or painting, Snell Foundation serialized label.
Sweden: Good fit necessary including warning that helmet "should be placed so as to protect the forehead and not be pushed too far back over the back of the head," crash damage. Text must be in Swedish.


Instrumentation
ANSI: Requires accelerometer and a data channel meeting SAE J211- JUN80 for channel class 1000. Can use oscilloscope. Periodically check against calibration traceable to NBS. Instrumentation check using Modular Elastomer Programmer (MEP) described, to be repeated after testing series and must be within 5 per cent of readings at start. Velocity- sensing equipment must be capable of producing a discrete output resolvable within 200 ms. Strap test apparatus drawing shows a displacement transducer and an optional load cell. Thirty minute warmup specified.
ASTM: Uniaxial accelerometer capable of withstanding 1000 g (9810 meters per second squared). SAE J211 data channel and filtering, which can be satisfied by a low-pass analog or digital filter with a 4-pole Butterworth transfer function and a corner frequency of 1000 Hz. System check before and after each series of tests by dropping onto MEP a 146 mm aluminum spherical impactor weighing 4000 to 4010 g mounted on ball-arm connector of test assembly. MEP must be 152 mm in diameter and 25 mm thick, with durometer of 58 to 62 Shore A, fixed on flat 6.35 mm aluminum plate. Impactor dropped on MEP three times at intervals of 60 to 90 seconds, at impact velocity of 5.44 m/s +/- 2 per cent (drop height 1.5 m plus friction allowance). Peak acceleration should be between 381 and 397 g. If results of pretest and posttest impacts differ by more than 5 per cent equipment must be recalibrated and test results discarded.
Australia/NZ Calibration before and after test series must be within 3 per cent of theoretical drop velocity. (Not yet updated here for 1996 version.)
BSI: Accelerometer must withstand 2000 g, measuring system including drop assembly must have frequency response in accordance with channel class 1000 of ISO 6487. Must record deceleration against time. Instrument check at 300 g with results within 15 g.
Canada: Accelerometer can be linear or tri-axial. Must be aligned within 5 degrees of vertical when helmet and headform are in impact position, be capable of withstanding 1000 g without damage and have 5 to 900 hz frequency response. Data channel must meet specs for channel class 1000 of SAE standard J211. Digital recording equipment must collect impact data at a rate not less than 8000 hz per channel. Instrumentation check using Open Blue MEP from U.S. Testing, or other suitable medium, is required, with repeatability within 10 g. Pre-test and post-test results to be within 10g. Thirty minute warmup. System must be able to "accurately measure" accelerations up to and including 745 to 755 g.
CPSC: Requires uniaxial accelerometer capable of measuring 1000 g., with sensitive axis aligned within 5 degrees of vertical when test headform in impact position. SAE J211-OCT88 data channel for Channel Class 1000. System check before and after each series of tests (at least a beginning and end of each test day) by dropping onto MEP a 146 mm aluminum spherical impactor mounted on ball-arm connector of test assembly with combined weight of 5 kg +/- 0.1 kg. MEP must be 152 mm in diameter and 25 mm thick, with durometer of 58 to 62 Shore A, fixed on flat 6.35 mm aluminum plate. Geometric center of MEP aligned with center vertical axis of accelerometer. Impactor dropped on MEP at impact velocity of 5.44 m/s +2 per cent (drop height 1.5 m plus friction allowance). Six impacts at intervals of 60 to 90 seconds, three as warm-ups with results ignored, second three recorded and must fall within 380 g to 425 g. and have difference between high and low values of no more than 20 g.
Europe: Requires a tri-axial accelerometer accurate up to 2,000 g and weighing no more than 50 grams. Data channel must meet ISO specification 6487.
Europe-Child:Requires a tri-axial accelerometer accurate up to 2,000 g and weighing no more than 50 grams. Data channel must meet ISO specification 6487.
Japan: Accelerometer capable of measuring 2000 g (19.6 km per s2), with a "natural frequency" of 20000 Hz or above. Accelerometer and data channel capable of 10 to 10000 Hz plus or minus 1 dB and capable of recording wave forms. If a cathode ray oscilloscope is used, it must have a recording apparatus or be capable of taking photographs. Its vertical axis shall be capable of recording 400 g (3924 m per s2) within the full scale. Its horizontal axis must be capable of reading at least 10 m per s within the full scale and measuring the duration of any shocks over 150 g (1472 m per s2) to the nearest .1 m per s.
Snell B90: Data channel must meet SAE J211 for channel class 1000, "with the exception that the frequency response need not include the range from dc to 10hz."
Snell B95: Uniaxial accelerometer. Data channel must meet SAE J211 for channel class 1000, "with the exception that the frequency response need not include the range from dc to 10hz." Velocity measuring device accurate within 1 per cent must measure velocity of the headform-support assembly within the last 40 mm of travel before impact.
Snell N94: Uniaxial accelerometer. Data channel must meet SAE J211 for channel class 1000, "with the exception that the frequency response need not include the range from dc to 10hz." Velocity measuring device accurate within 1 per cent must measure velocity of the headform-support assembly within the last 40 mm of travel before impact.
Sweden: Triaxial accelerometer and amplifier required. Equipment must be able to measure and record accelerations up to 750 g "within the frequency interval 0-2000 Hz with an accuracy of 5 per cent." Carbon paper between headform and helmet used in striker test to "check whether the prescribed force has been transmitted to the measurement transducer."


Lab Environment
ANSI: Must be maintained with relative humidity between 20 and 80 per cent, and temperature between 18 degrees and 27 degrees centigrade (F 64 to 81 degrees).
ASTM: Temperature 17 to 23 degrees C (F 63 to 73 degrees), and relative humidity between 25 and 75 per cent. Barometric pressure 75-110 kPa.
Australia/NZ Ambient temperature of 18 to 30 degrees C (F 64 to 86 degrees) (Not yet updated here for 1996 version.)
BSI: Not specified.
Canada: Temperature 15 degrees to 25 degrees C (F 59 to 77 degrees). Relative humidity between 50 and 60 per cent.
CPSC: Must be maintained with relative humidity between 20 and 80 per cent, and temperature between 18 and 27 degrees C (F 64 to 81 degrees). Barometric pressure 75 to 110 kPa (22.2 to 32.6 inches of Hg.) for all conditioning environments.
Europe: Not specified.
Europe-Child:Not specified.
Japan: Not specified.
Snell B90: Not specified.
Snell B95: Not specified
Snell N94: Not specified
Sweden: SP-MET 1985 2.


Labels on Helmet
ANSI: Permanent and legible marking providing traceability, identification of manufacturer, date of manufacture and size.
ASTM: Easily legible labels "likely to remain legible throughout the life of the helmet." Include model, manufacturer, month and year of manufacture, no helmet can protect against all impacts warning, impact damage may not be apparent, destroy or return to manufacturer for inspection after impact, fit instructions must be followed for maximum protection, substances which may damage, recommended cleaning agents, not for motor vehicle use.
Australia/NZ Permanent and legible letters no less than 1.5 mm high and visible without removing padding. Name and address of manufacturer, model, size, month and year of manufacture, activity helmet is designed for, not for use on motorcycles, mass in grams, shell and liner material, damaging solvents, make no modifications, fasten strap, replace after severe blow, indication of front and rear.
BSI: Mark so it is "likely to remain legible throughout the life of the helmet" the number and date of BS68631987, manufacturer, size or size range of the helmet in circumference in mm of head it will fit, model, serial number or identification of production batch.
Canada: Permanent markings of manufacturer, model, size or size range, year and month of manufacture. If a visor is included, "information shall be included stating that the visor has not undergone testing to this standard.
CPSC: Durable, legible, easily visible labels. Certification label stating compliance with CPSC standard, with name, address and telephone number of the U.S. manufacturer, private labeler or importer issuing the label, uncoded month and year of manufacture, name and address of foreign manufacturer if not made in U.S. (can be coded if private labeler's name is on certificate), production lot number or serial number. Other labels preceded by "WARNING" stating that no helmet can protect against all impacts, serious death and injury may occur, must be fitted and attached properly to wearer's head, impact damage may not be apparent, destroy or return to manufacturer for inspection after impact, substances which may damage, recommended cleaning agents, refer to manual for details.
Europe: Easily legible markings throughout life of helmet Standard number, name or trademark of manufacturer, model, pedal cyclists' helmet, size in cm, weight, year and quarter of manufacturer, and "an appropriate warning" if shell adversely affected by solvents and such. Must be in language of the country of sale.
Europe-Child:Easily legible markings throughout life of helmet Standard number, name or trademark of manufacturer, model, pedal cyclists' helmet, size in cm, weight, year and quarter of manufacturer, and "an appropriate warning" if shell adversely affected by solvents and such. Must be in language of the country of sale.
Japan: Type of helmet, nominal size in cm, manufacturer, date of manufacture, handling instructions. Manufacturer and date can be "abbreviated" (coded?).
Snell B90: Durable, visible and legible label identifying manufacturer, month and year of manufacture, and size to be uncoded and in English. Snell certification mark permitted if licensed by Snell, whereupon the serialized Snell sticker must be placed inside the helmet so that it cannot be removed easily. If the helmet meets the B-90 Supplementary Standard a separate Supplemental Certification label is placed near the blue B-90 label.
Snell B95: Durable, visible and legible label identifying manufacturer, month and year of manufacture, and size to be uncoded and in English or a language common to the area where the helmet will be distributed. Bicycle use only, no helmet can protect against all impacts warning, good fit necessary, fasten straps, damage after crash may not be visible, return to manufacturer for inspection or destroy after an impact, substances which can damage, substances which can be used for cleaning or painting, Snell Foundation serialized label.
Snell N94: Durable, visible and legible label identifying manufacturer, month and year of manufacture, and size to be uncoded and in English or a language common to the area where the helmet will be distributed. Bicycle use only, no helmet can protect against all impacts warning, good fit necessary, fasten straps, damage after crash may not be visible, return to manufacturer for inspection or destroy after an impact, substances which can damage, substances which can be used for cleaning or painting, Snell Foundation serialized label.
Sweden: Size (or range if adjustable), weight, year of manufacture, manufacturer-importer, model, "Designed to the rules for safety and function issued by the National Board for Consumer Policies." Text must be in Swedish.


Labels on Packaging
ANSI: No requirement.
ASTM: Fitting and positioning instructions, including graphic representations of proper positioning.
Australia/NZ Manufacturer's registered brand name, model, size, either nominal mass in grams or list of sizes in model range with nominal mass of each , activity or activities for which helmet is designed.
BSI: Some instructions listed above in item 14 may be placed in packaging rather than in the helmet.
Canada: Tag or label in English and French stating helmet is for cyclists, may not protect, must be fitted properly and adjusted securely for best protection. Fitting instructions required. CPSC compliance statement on main display panel of the packaging or on promotional material for catalog sales.
CPSC: Fitting and positioning instructions including graphic representation, damaging substances.
Europe: Only requirement above under Item 14, Instructions.
Europe-Child:Only requirement above under Item 14, Instructions.
Japan: Suggests fits is important, fasten chinstrap, replace after impact, damaging substances.
Snell B90: No requirement.
Snell B95: No requirement.
Snell N94: No requirement.
Sweden: No requirement, although use and care instructions may "be delivered with every helmet."


Light Aging
ANSI: None.
ASTM: None.
Australia/NZ Materials should "remain appreciably stable" after exposure to sunlight. UV inhibitors should be used when necessary.
BSI: None.
CPSC: None.
Canada: None
Europe: Outer surface of helmet exposed to ultraviolet irradiation by a 125 watt zenon-filled quartz lamp for 48 hours at a range of 250 mm before wet conditioning. Alternative method: helmet is rotated at 1 to 5 rpm under a xenon arc lamp until total energy received is 1 Gj per m. Alternating 18 minute spray with distilled water whose conductivity is below 5 per cent S per cm followed by 102 minute dry period. Humidity of test chamber 45 to 55 per cent, temperature 68 to 72 degrees C measured by a black thermometer placed at same distance from the lamp as the helmet sample. Other conditions as specified in ISO4892 and "the revisions currently being prepared as ISO 4892 Part 1 and Part 2, Method A."
Europe-Child:Outer surface of helmet exposed to ultraviolet irradiation by a 125 watt zenon-filled quartz lamp for 48 hours at a range of 250 mm before wet conditioning. Alternative method: helmet is rotated at 1 to 5 rpm under a xenon arc lamp until total energy received is 1 Gj per m. Alternating 18 minute spray with distilled water whose conductivity is below 5 per cent S per cm followed by 102 minute dry period. Humidity of test chamber 45 to 55 per cent, temperature 68 to 72 degrees C measured by a black thermometer placed at same distance from the lamp as the helmet sample. Other conditions as specified in ISO4892 and "the revisions currently being prepared as ISO 4892 Part 1 and Part 2, Method A."
Japan: None
Snell B90: If materials degrade and affect performance, helmet must show obvious changes in the external appearance of the helmet.
Snell B95: "Ideally" materials should not degrade when exposed to sun.
Snell N94: "Ideally" materials should not degrade when exposed to sun.
Sweden: Helmet conditioned for 7 days at 68 to 72 degrees C (158 degrees F), then at ambient temperature it is subjected to 48 hours of a 125 watt ultraviolet lamp at a distance of 25 cm.


Mass
ANSI: Acknowledges the desirability of light weight.
ASTM: Acknowledges the desirability of light weight.
Australia/NZ Maximum mass recommended for headform sizes: O-700 g; M-600g; J-500 g; E-400 g; A-300 g; AA-300 g. Notes that further research is required before specific mass ranges can be specified. Recommends that mass of AA size helmets for small children be "as small as possible." Mass of test samples must not differ by more than 10 per cent from nominal mass specified by manufacturer on helmet packaging, and if range of nominal masses is used it cannot vary more than 50 g.
BSI: Not mentioned.
Canada: Not mentioned.
CPSC: Not mentioned.
Europe: Should have low weight. Weight must be labeled on helmet.
Europe-Child:Should have low weight. Weight must be labeled on helmet.
Japan: Limit of 800 grams for adult or 650 grams for children.
Snell B90: Not mentioned.
Snell B95: Not mentioned.
Snell N94: Not mentioned.
Sweden: Should have low weight.


Materials
ANSI: Shall not alter due to age or use, or from exposure to sun, temperature extremes or rain. Must provide warning if solvents, transfers or other additions will affect adversely. Must not cause skin disorders, nor be affected by sweat or toiletries.
ASTM: Materials known to cause skin irritation or disease shall not be used. Lining materials may be detachable for washing.
Australia/NZ Known to remain "appreciably stable" under influence of aging or normal use under sunlight, temperature extremes and rain. "Ultraviolet inhibitors should be used where necessary." If in contact with skin and hair, must be "appreciably stable" on contact with perspiration or toiletries. No materials known to cause skin irritations or disorders. All metal parts to be corrosion resistant or have a corrosion resistant finish.
BSI: If contacting skin, shall be known not to undergo appreciable alteration from sweat or toiletries, and shall not use materials known to cause skin disorders.
Canada: "Known to be suitable for use in the design of protective cycling helmets." Not appreciably altered by aging or normal use from exposure to sun, temperature extremes or rain. If contacting skin must not cause irritation or disease. "For materials not in general use, medical advice as to its suitability should be sought before adoption." Chin strap minimum width 12 mm.
CPSC: Shall be durable and resistant to exposure to sun, rain, cold, dust, vibration, perspiration or products applied to the skin and hair. Should not degrade during temperature extremes. Materials known to cause skin irritation or disease shall not be used. Lining materials, if used, may be detachable.
Europe: If contacting skin, shall be known not to undergo appreciable alteration from sweat or toiletries, and shall not use materials known to cause skin disorders.
Europe-Child:If contacting skin, shall be known not to undergo appreciable alteration from sweat or toiletries, and shall not use materials known to cause skin disorders.
Japan: Shell plastic or similar, free of defects such as flaws, cracks, crazings, burrs and peelings. Liner must be polyethylene foam free of defects such as flaws, spots and stains, and not developing brittleness, swelling or softening during hair oil test, perspiration test or impact testing.
Snell B90: "Ideally should be of" durable quality, not harmed by exposure to sun, rain, dust, vibration, sweat or products applied to skin and hair. Should not degrade due to temperature extremes likely to be encountered in routing storage or transportation. If in contact with skin must not cause skin irritation or disease. Materials which support the growth of fungi or algae shall not be used. Lining materials may detach for washing.
Snell B95: "Ideally should be of" durable quality, not harmed by exposure to sun, rain, dust, vibration, sweat or products applied to skin and hair. Should not degrade due to temperature extremes likely to be encountered in routing storage or transportation. Must not support the growth of fungi or algae. If in contact with skin must not cause skin irritation or disease. Liner may detach for washing.
Snell N94: "Ideally should be of" durable quality, not harmed by exposure to sun, rain, dust, ozone, vibration, sweat or products applied to skin and hair. Should not degrade due to temperature extremes likely to be encountered in routing storage or transportation. Must not support the growth of fungi or algae. If in contact with skin must not cause skin irritation or disease. Lining may detach for washing.
Sweden: Material in direct contact with the head should not irritate the skin or head in normal use.


Penetration Resistance
ANSI: No requirement.
ASTM: No requirement.
Australia/NZ No requirement.
BSI: No requirement.
Canada: No requirement.
CPSC: No requirement.
Europe: No requirement.
Europe-Child:No requirement.
Japan: Drop 3 kg pointed striker in guidance tube for .6 meters, must not penetrate to headform and make electrical contact. Can be dropped on impact tested helmet, but not on area affected by the impact tests. Test points must be at least 75 mm apart. Point on striker to be 59.5 to 60.5 degrees in vertical angle, with the tip a hemisphere of .5 mm or less in radius and with a hardness of HRC 45 or over.
Snell B90: No requirement.
Snell B95: No requirement.
Snell N94: No requirement.
Sweden: No requirement.


Perspiration Test
ANSI: No requirement.
ASTM: No requirement.
Australia/NZ No requirement.
BSI: No requirement.
Canada: No requirement.
CPSC: No requirement.
Europe: No requirement.
Europe-Child:No requirement.
Japan: Entire helmet is immersed for 24 hours in "artificial perspiration liquid" at ambient temperature, then examined for changes in brittleness, swelling, softening and others by visual inspection and tactile impression.
Snell B90: No requirement.
Snell B95: No requirement.
Snell N94: No requirement.
Sweden: No requirement.


Point Loading
ANSI: No requirement.
ASTM: No requirement.
Australia/NZ Helmet is mounted on a hemispherical headform of only 69.5 to 70.5 mm radius which has a circular 100 mm2 load transfer pin flush with its surface (protruding 0 to 0.05 mm) , then impacted with a 3 kg striker dropped .995 to 1.015 m. Striker anvil is curbstone-style, with curve of striking area radiused 9.5 to 10.5 mm. Loading must not exceed 500 N measured over the 100 mm2 area. The striker must not contact the surface of the headform.
BSI: No requirement.
Canada: No requirement.
CPSC: No requirement.
Europe: No requirement.
Europe-Child:No requirement.
Japan: No requirement.
Snell B90: No requirement.
Snell B95: No requirement.
Snell N94: No requirement. Although section E4. Is headed "Impact Management and Penetration Tests," there is no specification in that section for a penetration test.
Sweden: Test for imparted force from the blow of a 25 mm radius striker falling .6 m to achieve 30 Nm force. Transmitted force in one cm must not exceed 1kN.


Positional Stability Test
ANSI: None.
ASTM: Defined in base standard but not yet required by bicycle helmet specification. (A requirement similar to CPSC below has been approved but not yet published.)
Australia/NZ Remove visor if present, place helmet on modified ISO headform, tighten strap with spacer under chin, remove spacer, put hook under edge with strap running over top of shell, pull strap in direction parallel with helmet edge with force of 50 N. After 15 to 30 seconds, helmet should not deflect enough to obscure or entirely expose a test band drawn around head between basic plane (eye level) and 74 mm above basic plane for headform J or 85 mm above for headform A. "Retention systems shall be adjustable to produce tension on straps between all shell fixing points when the retaining strap is properly fastened."
BSI: Place helmet on headform inclined 45 degrees from horizontal with chinpiece faced with polyethylene foam, with acrylic wig cut to 70 mm length on top. Fasten straps. Place hook under rear edge linked with seatbelt webbing to 4 kg weight sliding on twin vertical wires near helmet shell. Drop weight .5 m to taut. Repeat twice more, readjusting retention system before each drop. Passes if helmet does not roll off forward.
Canada: With chin-neck piece attached to headform, hook is attached to front lower edge of helmet and pulled upward for at least 5 s with 250 N force. If the helmet moves more than 10 mm on the headform the force is applied for an additional 5 s. Repeated with hook attached to rear of helmet. Angle of helmet edge to basic plane must not exceed 45 degrees.
CPSC: With thickest pads in place, select headform size that partially compresses all sizing pads. Place helmet on ISO full chinpiece headform according to manufacturer's instructions. Tilt headform forward 45 degrees, attach hook to rear rim and strap run over helmet and down to a test apparatus permitting a 4 kg weight to drop .6 meters and hit a stop, jerking the strap. Test is repeated with headform face pointing upward, jerking helmet from front to rear. Strap elongation cannot exceed 5 mm per 300 mm when loaded with a 22 kg weight. The helmet must not come off of the test headform.
Europe: Helmet placed on headform, which is shown on drawing as having a chin piece, in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. Headform to be "smallest and largest claimed for that helmet type." A hook is attached under rear edge and wired over a pulley to a stop under a 10 kg weight which is dropped 250 mm onto the stop to produce the jerk. Helmet must not come off the headform or tilt forward more than 30 degrees.
Europe-Child:Helmet placed on headform, which is shown on drawing as having a chin piece, in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. Headform to be "smallest and largest claimed for that helmet type." A hook is attached under rear edge and wired over a pulley to a stop under a 10 kg weight which is dropped 250 mm onto the stop to produce the jerk. Helmet must not come off the headform or tilt forward more than 30 degrees.
Japan: None.
Snell B90: None. Requires that "quick release buckles, if used, shall not release inadvertently." Introduction says Standard does not address this point and wearer "must satisfy himself of the quality of fit and the positional stability of a particular helmet before using it." In the 1994 Supplementary Standard, Snell added a new test: place helmet on appropriate ISO full chinpiece headform positioned according to manufacturer's instructions. Tilt headform forward 45 degrees, attach hook to rear rim and wire rope run over helmet and down to a test apparatus permitting a 3.95 to 4.05 kg weight to drop .3 meters and hit a stop, jerking the strap. Test is repeated with headform face pointing upward, jerking helmet from front to rear. The helmet may shift but must remain on the test headform.
Snell B95: Place helmet on smallest appropriate ISO full chinpiece headform positioned according to manufacturer's instructions and adjust to obtain the best configuration of the retention system. Tilt headform forward 45 degrees, attach hook to rear rim and wire rope run over helmet and down to a test apparatus permitting a 3.95 to 4.05 g weight to drop .6 meters and hit a stop, jerking the strap. Test is repeated with headform face pointing upward at 45 degrees, jerking helmet from front to rear. The helmet may shift but must remain on the test headform. The inertial hammer apparatus delivering the shock weigh no more than 5 kg. Including the 4 kg weight. Requires that "quick release buckles, if used, shall not release inadvertently."
Snell N94: Same as Snell B95
Sweden: None.


Positioning on Headform
ANSI: In accordance with the helmet's positioning index, measured from middle of helmet side to basic plane. Origin of the index for each helmet is not specified.
ASTM: Centered laterally and seated firmly on the headform with a 5.0 kg preload ballast, a bean-bag filled with lead shot. Then positioned according to the positioning index supplied by the manufacturer, with the brow parallel to the basic plane, and secured so that it does not shift position prior to impact but does not interfere with free-fall or impact.
Australia/NZ Positioned in accordance with a positioning index supplied by the manufacturer.
BSI: To be positioned in a position which satisfies the field of vision requirements listed in Vision section below.
Canada: For impact tests the helmet "shall be placed on the appropriate headform with the retention system securely fastened and properly oriented. The flat anvil shall be aligned such that the contact between the helmet and the anvil is at the centre of the anvil." For stability test the helmet is positioned and secured on the headform "in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions."
CPSC: Positioned prior to each test according to the positioning index supplied by the manufacturer, indicating the vertical distance from the brow of the helmet to the basic plane when placed on the reference headform. Secured so that it does not shift prior to impact and the retention system does not interfere with freefall.
Europe: Positioned with vertical median plane of helmet and headform coinciding, 50 N load on top. Check of vision clearances next, and listed within section on positioning, perhaps implying helmet would be shifted as in BSI standard if vision clearances were not met when vertical median planes coincided. Then "the front edge of the helmet is placed against a 7 degree angle gauge" and test lines drawn on the shell.
Europe-Child:Positioned with vertical median plane of helmet and headform coinciding, 50 N load on top. Check of vision clearances next, and listed within section on positioning, perhaps implying helmet would be shifted as in BSI standard if vision clearances were not met when vertical median planes coincided. Then "the front edge of the helmet is placed against a 7 degree angle gauge" and test lines drawn on the shell.
Japan: Mount on headform with edge of shell in front center at the line 50.3 mm above basic plane, making allowances for permanent visors.
Snell B90: No specification.
Snell B95: Positioned in accordance with a positioning index supplied by the manufacturer, or in the absence of same positioned according to the technician's best judgment. Positioning index is distance from basic plane to lower edge of helmet in center front and rear.
Snell N94: Positioned in accordance with a positioning index supplied by the manufacturer, or in the absence of same positioned according to the technician's best judgment. Positioning index is distance from basic plane to lower edge of helmet in center front and rear.
Sweden: SP-MET 1985:2


Record of Tests
ANSI: Permanent record of each impact must show calibration of time and g scales. Photo of oscilloscope trace sufficient.
ASTM: Complete test record must be kept for all certification testing performed by manufacturer or independent lab on paper, electronic format or photographs. Original paper copy of test summary must include manufacturer's name and location, model and size of helmets tested, identifying code for each helmet in each conditioning environment, observed temperatures in each conditioning environment, relative humidity and temperature of the laboratory, impact test results in sequence with location of impact, anvil, velocity and maximum acceleration. Also requires record of the parameters and results of retention tests, name and location of the test lab, signature of the technician performing the test, test date and calibration test results.
Australia/NZ Various records for different parts of test protocols. Most require identity of helmet under test, details of headform, number of standard, and performance data such as degree of penetration, deflection of visor in mm, whether or not positioning test band was obscured or exposed during test, elongation of strap, headform acceleration at intervals specified in standard, details of damage to helmet and its components.
BSI: Must record deceleration against time.
Canada: No specification.
CPSC: Must keep records on paper or electronic media showing that helmet was certified under a "reasonable testing program." Must keep records for three years and make available to CPSC if requested within 48 hours if not on factory site. Record to identify helmets tested, production lot, results including precise nature of any failures and specific actions taken to address any failures. Original test record to be kept on paper by the test lab. Must show: (1) Identification of helmets tested and production lot; (2) Test results, including failures and actions taken; (3)test description including Helmet Positioning Index used, (4)Manufacturer's name and address; (5) Model and size of each helmet tested; (6) Identifying information including production lot; (7) Environmental condition for each helmet, including temperature, duration of conditioning and the laboratory temperature and relative humidity; (8) Results of peripheral vision clearance test; (9) Any failures to conform to labeling or instruction requirements; 10) Results of the positional stability test; (11) Results of the retention system strength test; (12) Impact test results in sequence stating location of impact, type of anvil, velocity prior to impact, maximum acceleration in g's; (13) Name and location of the test lab; (14) Technician's signature; (15) Test date; (16) Calibration test results verifying the operation of the test rig, Records to be provided to CPSC upon demand on paper or by email.
Europe: Must record identification details of helmets tested, including sizes, as well as results of impact and retention system tests, date of testing and name of testing authority.
Europe-Child:Must record identification details of helmets tested, including sizes, as well as results of impact and retention system tests, date of testing and name of testing authority.
Japan: No specification.
Snell B90: No specification.
Snell B95: No specification.
Snell N94: No specification.
Sweden: "The recorded time history of the measuring equipment is reported with a peak value of the acceleration vector. Test report summarizes results and states if helmet meets Consumer Protection Board guidelines for bicycle helmets.


Replacement Interval
ANSI: After impact, unless returned to manufacturer for "competent inspection" (and presumably found still sound or repaired).
ASTM: After impact, unless returned to manufacturer for "competent inspection."
Australia/NZ After severe blow, but labeling to note that helmet also has a limited life in normal use.
BSI: After a few years careful use, after crash, after bad knock or squashing, after badly scratched, if it does not fit any more.
Canada: After severe blow.
CPSC: After severe blow.
Europe: After a severe blow.
Europe-Child:After a severe blow.
Japan: After severe blow.
Snell B90: Recommends replacement after 5 years, or after severe blow.
Snell B95: Recommends replacement after severe blow, or after five years (or less if shorter time recommended by manufacturer).
Snell N94: Recommends replacement after severe blow, or after five years (or less if shorter time recommended by manufacturer).
Sweden: After violent impact.


Retention System Strength
ANSI: Dynamic yank. Helmet is placed on a headform and strap is tested with a 19.6 J impact to retention system achieved by dropping a 2 kg weight 1 m. Strap must not fail nor elongate more than 25 mm.
ASTM: Dynamic yank. Helmet is supported on a headform and preloaded with bean bag filled with 5 kg of lead shot. Chin strap is fastened under two metal bars 12 to 13 mm in diameter and separated by center distance of 75 to 77 mm, representing the jaw, from which hangs the test apparatus, weighing 7 kg +/- 5 per cent. A sliding weight of 4 kg is dropped down a bar for .6 m impacting against a stop at the bottom to dynamically load the retaining system. Strap must remain intact and not elongate during or after test more than 30 mm.
Australia/NZ Static pull of 225 5 N for 30 seconds, "and then an additional force of 500 5 N applied for 120 seconds." Strap shall not separate or elongate more than 25 mm.
BSI: Dynamic yank. Helmet placed on headform with lower edge supported. (Same diagrams as ANSI) Drop 10 kg weight 300 mm. Dynamic extension shall not exceed 32 mm, and residual extension shall not exceed 16 mm. Buckle must release normally after test.
Canada: Dynamic yank. Impact is from 2 kg mass dropped sufficient distance (about 1 meter) to produce a 20 J impact. Strap must not detach. Must not elongate more than 25 mm during impact. Immediately following impact elongation shall not exceed 12 mm. Test repeated on four samples conditioned in ambient, cold, hot and wet environments. Cold sample buckle is cycled five times.
CPSC: Dynamic yank. Helmet is supported on a headform and preloaded with bean bag filled with 5 kg of lead shot. Chin strap is fastened under two metal rods 12 to 13 mm in diameter and separated by 75 to 77 mm, representing the jaw, from which hangs the test apparatus, weighing 10.5 to 11.5 kg, including the 4 kg drop weight. The 4 kg weight is dropped for .6 m to dynamically load the retaining system while the pre-load falls away. Strap must remain intact and not elongate more than 30 mm (1.2").
Europe: Introduction says helmet "is intended to remain on the head in a bicycle accident and may cause strangulation by entrapment." Test is a dynamic yank. Four samples already impact tested (two large, two small, one of each the UV- wet conditioned sample) are suspended from a 12 mm diameter hook through a hole (drilled?) in the helmet with a curved plate 100 mm in diameter underneath the liner. The plate must be 3 to 4 mm thick and conform somewhat to the curvature of the headform, with a radius of 100 mm. A headform and drop apparatus weighing 15 kg (total preload) is positioned in the helmet and buckled in, then yanked by a 10 kg weight dropped 300 mm. Impact speed must be at least 95 per cent of theoretical, implying requirement for velocity sensor. Dynamic extension must not exceed 35 mm, and residual extension two minutes later must not exceed 25 mm. Extension includes any buckle slippage. Buckle must release after test "by normal operation of the release system." Separate test requires that the retention system open with one hand when it is loaded with 50 kg, and "the force for opening shall not exceed 30 N." Recommends that opening mechanism be marked with red or orange. No green permitted because green is mandated by child standard.
Europe-Child:Introduction says helmet "is intended to remain on the head in a bicycle accident and may cause strangulation by entrapment." Test is a dynamic yank. Four samples already impact tested (two large, two small, one of each the UV- wet conditioned sample) are suspended from a 12 mm diameter hook through a hole (drilled?) in the helmet with a curved plate 100 mm in diameter underneath the liner. The plate must be 3 to 4 mm thick and conform somewhat to the curvature of the headform, with a radius of 100 mm. A headform and drop apparatus weighing 15 kg (total preload) is positioned in the helmet and buckled in, then yanked by a 10 kg weight dropped 300 mm. Impact speed must be at least 95 per cent of theoretical, implying requirement for velocity sensor. Dynamic extension must not exceed 35 mm, and residual extension two minutes later must not exceed 25 mm. Extension includes any buckle slippage. Buckle must release after test "by normal operation of the release system." Separate test requires that the retention system open with one hand when it is loaded with 50 kg, and "the force for opening shall not exceed 30 N." Recommends that opening mechanism be marked with red o-Childr orange. No green permitted because green is mandated by child standard.
Japan: Static pull. Helmet mounted on impact test headform, initial preload of 5 kg applied and elongation marked, then test load of 50 kg applied for two minutes and measurement of elongation taken, excluding movement of helmet on headform. Strap must remain intact and not elongate more than 25 mm.
Snell B90: Dynamic yank. Helmet is supported on rigid fixture by base of shell, with chin strap fastened over two metal rods or rollers 12.7 mm in diameter and separated by 76.2 mm, representing the jaw. Pre-load of 23 kg. For 120 seconds, then a weight of 38 kg dropped for 30 mm to dynamically load the retaining system while the pre-load falls away. Impact of the 38 kg mass may be cushioned with 00-93 durometer rubber pad 150 mm in diameter by 6.5 mm thick, or equivalent. Strap must not part or deflect more than 30 mm.
Snell B95: Dynamic yank. Helmet is placed on a headform with chin strap fastened over two metal rods or rollers 12.2 to 13.2 mm in diameter and separated by 75.5 to 76.5 mm on centers, representing the jaw. Pre-load of 23 kg. for 60 seconds, then a weight of 38 kg dropped for 30 mm to dynamically load the retaining system while the pre-load falls away. Strap must not part or deflect more than 30 mm. Impact of the 38 kg mass may be cushioned with 00-93 durometer rubber pad 150 mm in diameter by 6.5 mm thick, or equivalent.
Snell N94: Dynamic yank. Helmet is placed on a headform with chin strap fastened over two metal rods or rollers 12.2 to 13.2 mm in diameter and separated by 75.5 to 76.5 mm on centers, representing the jaw. Pre-load of 23 kg. for 60 seconds, then a weight of 38 kg dropped for 30 mm to dynamically load the retaining system while the pre-load falls away. Strap must not part or deflect more than 30 mm. Impact of the 38 kg mass may be cushioned with 00-93 durometer rubber pad 150 mm in diameter by 6.5 mm thick, or equivalent.
Sweden: Static pull. Load strap with 45 N weight for one minute, note stretch, then increase load over 30 second period to 500 N. Hold for 2 minutes. Strap shall not elongate more than 25 mm.


Scope of Standard
ANSI: Helmets for bicyclists.
ASTM: Helmets for adult or junior bicyclists.
Australia/NZ Helmets for pedal cyclists except BMX bicycle racers.
BSI: Helmets for bicyclists, particularly young riders, on public roads and similar places. Forward states that "it is not intended for high-speed or long-distance cycling, or for riders taking part in competitive events...it is intended to give protection in the kind of accident where the rider falls onto the road without other vehicles being involved."
Canada: Helmets for cyclists 5 years of age and older, or for cyclists and passengers under age 5.
CPSC: Helmets for bicyclists: "Headgear that is either marketed as, or implied through marketing and/or promotional information to be, a device intended to provide protection from head injuries while riding a bicycle." Helmets for cyclists age 1 to 5 must have greater coverage. Applies by U.S. law to all helmets offered for sale in U.S. market.
Europe: Helmets for users of pedal cycles, skateboards and roller skates.
Europe-Child:Helmets for users of pedal cycles, skateboards and roller skates.
Japan: Helmets for bicyclists of two types: adult-high school- middle school and children-primary school.
Snell B90: Helmets for use in bicycling.
Snell B95: Helmets for use in bicycling.
Snell N94: Helmets for use in bicycling, roller skating, roller blading, skateboarding, paddling, playground activities and other non-motorized activities involving speed, balance and agility. Excludes skiing, water skiing, equestrian sports, team sports and any motorized activity.
Sweden: Helmets for use when cycling. Not applicable to helmets intended solely for competitive or professional use.


Sequence of Testing
ANSI: Not specified.
ASTM: Retention system tests before impact tests. Four samples (ambient, hot. cold, wet) are tested for impact attenuation on flat and hemispherical anvils, with four impacts each, on any anvil. A fifth (ambient) sample is tested with a single impact on the curbstone anvil
Australia/NZ Impact attenuation tests before retention system tests. Acknowledges that helmets may fail a test due to damage from prior tests, but the failure is to be considered a valid test result.
BSI: One impact on each anvil, followed by tests for strap strength and effectiveness of retention system.
Canada: Order of testing not specified. No indication of whether or not strap test precedes impact test.
CPSC: Two sets of four samples required. 1)Peripheral vision test on first ambient sample. 2)Second ambient sample subjected to retention system stability (rolloff) test. 3)Retention system strength tests on each of the first set of ambient, cold, hot and wet samples. 4)First set of ambient, hot, cold and wet samples subjected to 2 impacts each in different locations on flat and hemispherical anvils. 5)Second set of ambient, hot, cold and wet samples tested for impact attenuation with a single impact on the curbstone anvil.
Europe: Detailed sequence beginning with rolloff test of retention system effectiveness, then impact (table details conditioning and anvil for each sample), then strap strength. Five samples of largest size and five of smallest sizes required, each impacted in two locations. Impacts on sites selected by the testing authority to represent worst case conditions. Kerbstone anvil used "without restrictions on its orientation." Impact sites separated by at least 150 mm. Testing authority must confirm helmet's sizing is correct on label.
Europe-Child:Detailed sequence beginning with rolloff test of retention system effectiveness, then impact (table details conditioning and anvil for each sample), then strap strength. Five samples of largest size and five of smallest sizes required, each impacted in two locations. Impacts on sites selected by the testing authority to represent worst case conditions. Kerbstone anvil used "without restrictions on its orientation." Impact sites separated by at least 150 mm. Testing authority must confirm helmet's sizing is correct on label.
Japan: Test order: perspiration test, hair oil test, appearance and construction examination, and weighing precede other tests. Impact tests can be next, with chinstrap test and penetration test last, or impact test can also be done after chinstrap test.
Snell B90: Random impacts on flat and hemispherical anvils. Retention system test to be conducted before impact test.
Snell B95: Random impacts on flat and hemispherical anvils. Retention system test to be conducted before impact test. Tester will "investigate potential weaknesses and exercise each likely failure mode."
Snell N94: Random impacts on flat and hemispherical anvils. Retention system test to be conducted before impact test.
Sweden: Unknown.


Shell
ANSI: Not required, but defined as "The outer surface of the protective device."
ASTM: Not required or defined.
Australia/NZ All irregularities "should be smoothly faired to minimize resistance to tangential impact forces brought about by friction or snagging."
BSI: Not required. Defined as "the material that provides the general outer form of the helmet. Not necessarily of hard material, and either contains or provides the necessary means of absorbing impact energy.
Canada: Definition of helmet includes "the outer shell," but shell characteristics are not indicated. Notes that a helmet need not contain all components of the definition.
CPSC: Not required or defined.
Europe: Not required or defined.
Europe-Child:Not required or defined.
Japan: Required. Must be rigid, with smooth surface and rounded rim, made of plastic or similar material.
Snell B90: Not required.
Snell B95: Not required.
Snell N94: Not required.
Sweden: Not required.


Sliding Resistance of Shell


ANSI: No test.
ASTM: No test, but defines projections as "any part of a helmet that extends beyond the faired surface and is likely to cause injury."
Australia/NZ No test, but states "NOTE irregularities in the shell should be smoothly faired to minimize resistance to tangential impact force s brought about by friction or snagging."
BSI: No test.
Canada: No test. Requires fairing of irregularities below reference plane.
CPSC: No test, but requires projections over 7mm to break away and all others to be smoothly faired to offer "no significant frictional resistance to tangential forces."
Europe: No test.
Europe-Child:No test.
Japan: No test.
Snell B90: No test. Mentions that projections above the outer surface must be smoothly faired "and offer minimal frictional resistance to tangential impact forces."
Snell B95: No test. Mentions that projections above the outer surface must be smoothly faired "and offer minimal frictional resistance to tangential impact forces."
Snell N94: No test.
Sweden: No test.


Test Laboratories
ANSI: Not specified.
ASTM: Not specified.
Australia/NZ Three: Technisearch, Crashlab, Imtest Laboratory (May have been updated for 1996)
BSI: Not known (BSI?).
Canada: Not specified.
CPSC: Not specified.
Europe: Not known.
Europe-Child:Not known.
Japan: Not specified
Snell B90: Snell Foundation labs.
Snell B95: Snell Foundation labs.
Snell N94: Snell Foundation labs.
Sweden: Not known.


Velocity or Energy Level Confirmation of Test Drop
ANSI: Requires a velocity sensor within 25 mm of impact. Velocity for the one meter drop must attain 4.57 m per s, with a tolerance of plus 0 minus 5 per cent.
ASTM: Velocity measured in last 40 mm of free fall and must be within 3 per cent of specified velocities.
Australia/NZ No velocity sensor specified. (May have been updated for 1996)
BSI: Requires velocity sensor within 60 mm of impact accurate to 1 per cent. Velocity for one meter drop must attain 4.57 to 4.72 m per s.
Canada: not available
CPSC: Velocity must be measured to an accuracy of 2 per cent within last 40 mm of free fall. Velocity for flat anvil test to achieve 6.2 m per s and for hemispheric anvil 4.8 m per s, corresponding to theoretical drops of 2.0 and 1.2 meters. Tolerance is 2 per cent.
Europe: Requires velocity sensor within 60 mm of impact accurate to 1 per cent. Velocity of headform must be equivalent to a drop height of 1.49 to 1.51 m.
Europe-Child:Requires velocity sensor within 60 mm of impact accurate to 1 per cent. Velocity of headform must be equivalent to a drop height of 1.49 to 1.51 m.
Japan: None.
Snell B90: Calculate impact energy using mass of headform and supporting assembly without helmet, and measured impact velocity. Must be within 3 per cent of the joules specified.
Snell B95: Calculate impact energy using mass of headform and supporting assembly without helmet, times the square of the impact velocity measurement, times one half. Must not exceed the joules specified by more than 3 per cent. No two impacts can be below 97%. Velocity must be measured to an accuracy of 1 per cent within last 40 mm of free fall.
Snell N94: Calculate impact energy using mass of headform and supporting assembly without helmet, times the square of the impact velocity measurement, times one half. Must not exceed the joules specified by more than 3 per cent. Velocity must be measured to an accuracy of 1 per cent within last 40 mm of free fall.
Sweden: Specified in SP-MET 19852.


Ventilation
ANSI: Acknowledges desirability of ventilation.
ASTM: Acknowledges desirability of ventilation.
Australia/NZ Helmets "shall incorporate features designed to transfer heat from the head."
BSI: Forward recognizes that ventilation is important to cyclists, but says that time constraints forced leaving it out. Will be included in next revision, and in the meantime "designers of helmets are advised to encourage a flow of air over the wearer's head."
Canada: Not mentioned.
CPSC: Not mentioned.
Europe: Should be ventilating. Not included as a measured requirement because no method "was recognized."
Europe-Child:Should be ventilating. Not included as a measured requirement because no method "was recognized."
Japan: Vents permitted. Calls for due consideration of stuffiness in summer season.
Snell B90: Mentions vents in introduction.
Snell B95: Not mentioned.
Snell N94: Not mentioned.
Sweden: Should "be ventilating."


Vision Impairment
ANSI: Peripheral vision of 105 degrees from centerline required on both sides.
ASTM: Peripheral vision of 105 degrees from centerline required on both sides.
Australia/NZ Peripheral vision of 105 degrees on both sides, and front edge clearance 25 mm above basic plane (bottom of eye socket) through same 105 degrees peripheral vision clearance area.
BSI: Peripheral vision of 105 degrees required on both sides. Forward vision must be unobstructed at 45 degree angle downward from the basic plane and 25 degree angle upward from the reference plane. Dimensions for planes are apparently in BS 6489.
Canada: No requirement.
CPSC: Peripheral vision of 105 degrees from centerline required on both sides after helmet positioned on headform according to manufacturer's helmet positioning index and weighted with a 5 kg ballast weight.
Europe: Peripheral vision of 105 degrees required on both sides. Forward vision must be unobstructed at 45 degree angle downward from the basic plane and 25 degree angle upward from the reference plane above it.
Europe-Child:Peripheral vision of 105 degrees required on both sides. Forward vision must be unobstructed at 45 degree angle downward from the basic plane and 25 degree angle upward from the reference plane above it.
Japan: If a visor is integrated into the shell it must not obstruct forward vision.
Snell B90: Peripheral vision of 105 degrees from centerline required on both sides.
Snell B95: Helmet is placed on reference headform and held in place with 50 Newton force. Peripheral vision of 110 degrees from centerline required on both sides. In addition the helmet must permit upward visual clearance of 40 degrees, not including chinbars, similar facial protection and non-impact managing bills, visors or sunshades.
Snell N94: Helmet is placed on reference headform and held in place with 50 Newton force. Peripheral vision of 110 degrees from centerline required on both sides. In addition the helmet must permit upward visual clearance of 40 degrees, not including chinbars, similar facial protection and non-impact managing bills, visors or sunshades.
Sweden: Should be usable with spectacles.


Visors and Accessories
ANSI: Not mentioned. Helmets tested without attachments.
ASTM: Visors and face shields optional. Helmets tested in condition as offered for sale, and must pass all tests with or without any included attachments.
Australia/NZ Visors ("peaks") permitted. Considering a requirement that visor deflect at least a minimum amount when loaded with a weight, or be detachable. Introduction notes that "concern has been expressed that rigid peaks may cause rotational injuries to the head or neck during some falls, and facial injuries if they shatter or break off."
BSI: Not mentioned.
Canada: Visors permitted, must be removable. Helmets tested without visor. Labels must note that visor is not CSA certified.
CPSC: Helmets must pass all tests both with and without any attachments that may be included.
Europe: Must be designed and shaped not to injure user during normal use.

Europe-Child:Must be designed and shaped not to injure user during normal use.
Japan: Visors permitted. If integrated into shell must not impede forward vision.
Snell B90: Permitted. Must break away "readily" if extend more than 7 mm from external surface.
Snell B95: Permitted. Must not lessen protective capability of the helmet or create a direct hazard for the wearer.
Snell N94: Permitted. Must not lessen protective capability of the helmet or create a direct hazard for the wearer.
Sweden: Permitted. Must detach or deflect a minimum of 6 mm when loaded with a 10 N weight.



Copies of the Standards are Available From:
ANSI
Available as an archive document despite administrative withdrawal
American National Standards Institute, Inc.
11 W 32nd Street New York, NY 10036(212) 642-4900
ANSI publications are copyrighted and permission to reproduce for others is not granted. ANSI may be able to provide the other standards listed as well.

ASTM
American Society for Testing and Materials.
100 Barr Harbor Drive Phone: (610) 832-9500West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 - Fax (610) 832-9555

Internet: Service@local.astm.org

Australia/NZ
Standards Australia
P. O. Box 1055

Strathfield, NSW, Australia
Phone: 61-2-746-4700 Fax: 61-2-746-4766

BSI
British Standards Institution
2 Park Street London, W1A 2BS, England
01-629-9000

Canada
Canadian Standards Association
178 Rexdale Boulevard Rexdale, Ontario, Canada
Phone: (416)747-4000 Fax:(416) 747-2473

Europe and Europe-Child (CEN)
TC158 slash WG4 Convener
Ms. Lotten Strindberg
Konsumentverket

Sorterargatan 26
S-162 15 Vallingby, Sweden

CPSC
Scott Heh
Engineering Science Room 734
United States Consumer Product Safety CommissionWashington, DC 20207
Phone: (301) 504-0494 Fax: (301) 504-2058

Snell
Snell Memorial Foundation
3628 Madison Ave, #11 N. Highlands, CA 95660
(916) 331-5073 Fax (916) 331- 0359
email: Ed@smf.org
Snell provides its standards free upon request and permits them to be photocopied. For non-technical readers Snell's standards are the best-explained and most easily understood of the listed standards.

Sweden
National Swedish Board for Consumer Policies
Stockholm, Sweden
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